‘Panch Kosha’: Indian concept of personality
In the light of this discussion it is worth to present an Indian concept of Personality, which is simple, comprehensive and applicable. There is a similarity in the description of philosophy in the modern psychology and the ancient philosophy of India. According to this concept, personality comprises of five sheaths/aspects or ‘Panch Kosha’. They are mentioned several times in Indian philosophy. The five sheaths or panch kosha are Anatomical Aspect or Annamaya Kosha, Physiological Aspect or Praanamay Kosha, Emotional Aspect or Manomaya Kosha, Intellectual Aspect or Vijnaanmaya Kosha and Social & Moral Aspect or Aanandamaya Kosha.
The first Anatomical aspect considers one’s body. It is said that our body is made of five elements – earth, water, fire, air and sky. Earth means solid, water means liquid, air means gaseous, fire is energy and sky means vacuum or space.
In Anatomical aspect, static properties are considered whereas in Physiological Aspect the activities and motion are thought of. This second aspect includes our movements, speech and gestures.
The third aspect, that is Emotional, involves feelings, emotions, nature, aptitudes, attitudes, likes and dislikes opinions, prejudices, mental habits, attention, concentration, motivation and the like.
Intellectual Aspect involves intelligence, intellectual faculties, thinking processes, knowledge, art and skills.
Finally, Social and Moral Aspect involves social interactions, ‘ego’ or the ‘self’. It includes one’s values, principles, preferences, life goals, etc. of an individual in this aspect.